I’ve seen a lot of professionals use the terms data and information interchangeably during my career. In this post, we will discuss data vs. information in order to better comprehend their interconnectedness, differences, and how one cannot exist without the other.
Data is raw, unanalyzed, unorganized, unrelated, uninterrupted material which is used to derive information, after analyzation. Information is acquired when that data is analyzed, structured, and given composure or context to make it useful. We gather data through surveys, research, and observations, and we obtain information once the data has been examined and processed.
Organizations acquire data from a variety of sources, including surveys, research, consumers, and employees. Keeping this data unmanaged and unanalyzed will not create value; on the contrary, it will cost us money and resources with little return on investment.
We need a solid data management program throughout the company to unleash the magic of data and get insights. This program will help us build information from this data to drive more informed decision making and gain insights about our everyday operations.
Regardless of industry, data has become a driving factor for an organization success. When correctly handled, it will give a thorough insight of what is and is not functioning.
Data and information must be controlled using distinct methodologies. Understanding the difference between these two terminologies is critical for each individual on the globe.
What is Data?
Data is a collection of raw, unorganized plain facts, observations, statistics, characters, symbols, images, numbers, and more that are collected and can be used for analysis.
Every day, organizations deal with a vast quantity of data obtained from various sources such as customer surveys, paper and electronic forms, CVs, and so on. It is useless and uninformative if left unmanaged and unprocessed. It will only be useful to us if it is appropriately analyzed.
We collect data from both primary and secondary sources. Data acquired by researchers, such as interviews, observations, case studies, and so on, are examples of primary sources. Web material, reports, and other secondary sources are examples.
When it comes to computers, data is represented in the form of 0’s and 1’s patterns that may be interpreted to indicate a value or fact. Bit, Nibble, Byte, KB (kilobytes), MB (Megabytes), GB (Gigabytes), TB (Terabytes), PT (Petabyte), EB (Exabyte), ZB (Zettabytes), YT (Yottabytes), and so on are data measurement units.
Data is classified into two categories.
- Qualitative: Information that cannot be simply reduced to numbers. Qualitative data, as opposed to quantitative data, tends to address questions about the ‘what,’ ‘how,’ and ‘why’ of a phenomena. It can be used to classify and categories elements.
- Quantitative: Information that can be measured. It can be counted or measured, and then assigned a numerical value, such as length in millimeters or revenue in dollars.
- Internal: Information, statistics, and trends discovered by businesses via their activities. It contains data obtained from internal databases, software, customers, decision-making, and reporting.
- External Data: all data outside the organization’s operating systems.
I recommend watching the short YouTube video below for a wonderful understanding of data.
What is Information?
Information = Data + Meaning
When data is processed, evaluated, organized, structured, or presented in such a way that it becomes meaningful or helpful, it is referred to be information. Data is given context through information.
Information is data that has been structured or categorized and has some meaningful values for the recipient. The processed data on which judgments and actions are based is referred to as information.
A day’s temperature, humidity, wind speed, and speed of recorded are examples of Data, but the proportion of weather classified as cold or warm is an example of Information.
In a nutshell, Information is data with meaning.
It is critical for decision-makers in any firm to have access to relevant and trustworthy information. This is dependent on gathering high-quality data that can be processed, evaluated, and formatted in a consistent and reliable manner to yield meaningful information.
Organizations must employ best practices in information management in order to manage, protect, store, and disseminate information to the right audience at the right time and place for successful decision making.
When information is accumulated or utilized to better understand or perform anything, it is referred to as knowledge.
The Difference Between Data and Information
All data could be classified as information but all information cannot be classified into data.
Even though these two names are sometimes used interchangeably, there is a significant difference between them.
The fundamental distinction between data and information is that data is meaningless in and of itself, but when processed and evaluated, it becomes information with meaning.
Below are the most important differences
- Data is made up of raw figures and facts. Information delivers insights derived from data analysis.
- Information can’t exist without data but data doesn’t rely on the information.
- Data is measured in bits and bytes. Information is measured in meaningful units like time, quantity, etc.
- Data on its own is rarely valuable, but information is.
- Data is meaningless, whereas information exists to bring insights and meaning.
- Data can be structured in the form of tabular data, graphs, or data trees, whereas information is language, ideas, and thoughts based on the supplied data.
|Description||Raw facts serve as the foundation for information||Processed and analyzed data|
|Format||Form of numbers, letters, or a set of characters.|
|Basis||Researches & observations||Analysis|
|Meaning||Data does not have any specific purpose||Serve as input for insights and decision making|
|Dependency||Dependent on the sources used to obtain data. No dependency on information||Depends on data|
|Characteristic||Data is an organization’s property and is not for sale to the general public.||The public can purchase information.|
|Measurements||Bits and bytes||Time, quantity, money, and other relevant characteristics|
|Usefulness||Data collected may or may not be valuable||Information is useful and valuable|
|Interrelation||Collection of information||Processed from data|
|Example||Test result of a student||Average score of a class|
Data vs Information Examples
Let’s look at some real-life examples that will pique your interest in the information you’ve gleaned from this post.
- A book is made up of multiple pages that contain many words, which constitute data. When we read these pages, examine the material, and process it in our minds, it becomes information.
- Consider product reviews on Amazon or any other website; they are statistics for Amazon. Ratings and classification by gender, for example, are the information we got when Amazon analyzed the data. It is very useful to decide whether or not to purchase a product.
How Data is Converted Into Information?
There is an abundance of raw and unprocessed data available from many online and offline sources, not all of which must be used to make educated or successful decisions. Analyzing, interpreting, and arranging the most relevant and reliable information from the vast amount of accessible data may be a time-consuming process.
To manage a successful corporation, you must harness the power of your information in order to make the best educated business decisions.
To do so, you must first devise a strategy for converting acquired data into information.
How should this be done?
1- Collect Only Relevant Data
There are several data sources from which to acquire information. Surveys, questionnaires, research, and other methods are used by organizations to collect data. But the most crucial issue is determining whether or not that data will benefit my business. Is it possible for me to utilize a subset of this data to better my goods, business choices, or services?
Organizations must guarantee that only high-quality and relevant data is captured and retained for subsequent processing at this level.
Eliminate all irrelevant data. It is irrelevant if it does not influence a decision.
2- Leverage Analytical Tools
There are several analytical tools available to assist you in analyzing data and gaining better insights.
MS EXCEL is the most basic and widely used. You may export your data into Excel and utilize its features to make the most of the information you’ve gathered.
The data collected from your system may be entered into the excel sheet as needed and then modified to the necessary information utilizing its cutting-edge technologies.
3- Convert Data To Information
As previously said, information is created when we take data, evaluate it, and apply our own expertise and knowledge to change that data into something meaningful that will assist us in making better educated business decisions.
To put it simply, data is an unorganized representation of basic facts from which information may be retrieved.
Data is derived from a variety of sources, including relational databases, machine-generated data, data mining tools that extract data from the web, real-time data, Internet of Things (IoT) devices, human-generated data, and others.
Analyzing, interpreting, and arranging the most relevant and reliable information from the vast amount of accessible data may be a time-consuming procedure.
Organizations have no option but to take the time to put up a process that uses technology to ensure that data is reliable and of high quality, and that only the useful information that will help move the business ahead is captured.